# Rosling.bubbles()

# The Bubbles Animation in Hans Roslings Talk

### Yihui Xie & Lijia Yu / 2017-04-04

In Hans Rosling’s attractive talk ```
Debunking third-world myths with the best
stats you've ever seen
```

, he used a lot of bubble plots to illustrate trends
behind the data over time. This function gives an imitation of those moving
bubbles, besides, as this function is based on `symbols`

, we can
also make use of other symbols such as squares, rectangles, thermometers,
etc.

Suppose we have observations of `\(n\)`

individuals over
`ani.options('nmax')`

years. In this animation, the data of each year
will be shown in the bubbles (symbols) plot; as time goes on, certain trends
will be revealed (like those in Rosling’s talk). Please note that the
arrangement of the data for bubbles (symbols) should be a matrix like
`\(A_{ijk}\)`

in which `\(i\)`

is the individual id (from 1 to n), `\(j\)`

denotes the `\(j\)`

-th variable (from 1 to p) and `\(k\)`

indicates the time
from 1 to `ani.options('nmax')`

.

And the length of `x`

and `y`

should be equal to the number of rows
of this matrix.

```
library(animation)
ani.options(interval = 0.2, nmax = 50)
## use default arguments (random numbers); you may try to find
## the real data
par(mar = c(4, 4, 0.2, 0.2))
Rosling.bubbles()
```

```
## rectangles
Rosling.bubbles(type = "rectangles", data = matrix(abs(rnorm(50 *
10 * 2)), ncol = 2))
```